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人民币半年升值2.3% 缝纫机企业生存调查

  2011年以来,国际缝制设备需求稳步放量,从而逐渐取代增长乏力的国内市场,成为国内缝企关注的新焦点。据海关统计数据显示,1-5月份我国累计出口缝制机械产品7.7亿美元,同比增长40.9%,3月、4月缝制机械出口金额更是连续两度刷新行业月出口额最高纪录。然而,对于出口缝企而言,产品热销的喜悦却逐渐被持续攀升的人民币汇率所冲淡。如何对冲升值带来的利润缩水,成为国内缝机产品出口亟待克服的首要问题。

人民币升值步伐加速

  步入2011年,人民币升值步伐加快。半年来,人民币对美元汇率中间价连破6.6、6.5两大关,累计升值2.33%,来自中国外汇交易中心的最新数据显示,7月5日人民币对美元汇率中间价报6.4650,连续创出汇改以来新高。纵向来看,自去年6月19日中国人民银行宣布进一步推进人民币汇率形成机制改革、重启汇改以来,过去一年时间内,人民币已经累计升值达5.6%。

  今年上半年,人民币汇率走势非常清晰,升值速度和幅度都比较快。人民币对美元汇率中间价几乎是从6.62一路下滑至6.48以下,1月突破6.6,4月突破6.5,人民币持续加速升值成为常态。

升值挤压出口企业利润空间

  外贸依存度高、行业平均利润率偏低、尤其是外贸出口企业产品附加值较低,是我国缝制机械行业一直以来的现状。近年来,虽然行业转型升级提速,但整体来看,价格因素依然是影响出口的重要因素,而出口价格对于汇率波动的敏感度非常高。2011年以来,缝制机械原材料价格、人力成本不断上涨,而产品价格的提升空间远远不能满足企业生产成本的增长,更逞论人民币汇率的不断攀升。

  据中国缝制机械协会了解,我国规模以上缝纫机企业出口利润普遍在5-7%左右,而规模以下企业毛利率仅在3%左右。目前2.33%的升值幅度已逼近企业所能承受的最大限度。在对行业十余家主要外贸企业的采访中我们了解到,上半年由于人民币升值导致的企业利润损失,小至十几万,大至上百万,甚至有的企业直接造成了上半年经营亏损,利润空间一再受到挤压。不少缝企表示,当前的汇率变动,已经迫使产品出口面临无利可图的不利局面,如果无法找到有效的解决办法,企业将生存堪忧。

应对升值,缝企在行动

  人民币升值,在缝制机械行业早已不是新话题。近年来已成常态的升值问题不断困扰着外贸企业的正常发展。面对新一轮汇率波动,不少缝机企业积极调整思路,以更加理性和长远的眼光,在持续探索中积极寻求最为有效的应对之策。

  1.谨慎接单,减少长单比例

  考虑到人民币升值因素,目前几乎行业内所有外贸企业在接单方面都空前的谨慎,不少企业拒接长单,6个月以上长单的比重已明显缩减。据了解,目前飞跃仅保留有部分巴西等远距离市场的长单,宝石长单比例仅占其订单的5%,标准基本上已不接6个月以上的外贸长单。

  2.银行锁定汇率等财务操作,规避汇率风险

  与银行合作进行“远期结售汇”业务,这是目前行业内最常见的规避汇率风险方式。远期结售汇业务是确定汇价在前,实际外汇收支发生在后的结售汇业务(即期结售汇中两者是同时发生的)。客户与银行协商签订远期结售汇合同,约定将来办理结汇或售汇的人民币兑外汇币种、金额、汇率以及交割期限。在交割日当天,客户可按照远期结售汇合同所确定的币种、金额、汇率向银行办理结汇或售汇。

  此外,还有不少企业还选择与银行合作对部分客户做“出口保理”、大单的福费廷等财务操作来规避汇率风险。

  3.人民币跨境结算,开辟多元化结算方式

  2009年4月8日国务院常务会议正式决定,在上海和广州、深圳、珠海、东莞等城市开展跨境贸易人民币结算试点。2010年6月浙江获批跨境贸易人民币结算试点区,台州宝石等企业先后申请成为试点企业,开辟多元化结算方式。虽然人民币跨境结算避免了汇率变化可能带来的贸易损失,但遗憾的是,想要让手持欧元、美元的外商接受这一结算方式并不容易。据了解,目前人民币跨境结算仅止于越南等中国周边国家。

  4.积极与客户协商,适当提高产品出口价格

  提价,是企业最想做却又最难实现的应变方式。目前产品价格依然是下游客户采购时考虑的主要因素。当前,我国缝制机械产品出口依存度较高,缺乏市场话语权,这就导致了缝企产品难以提价,汇率损失只能企业自行消化的尴尬局面。据了解,目前行业仅有少数几家有议价能力的企业能做到与客户协商共同承担相应汇兑损失。

  当然,针对人民币升值,缝机企业的应对措施绝不仅仅只有以上四点,但笔者认为掌握产品定价权才是解决问题的王道。这么多年来,每谈及中国制造在国际上的竞争力,无论是企业老板还是专家学者都明确表示:必须掌握产品定价权,否则只能赚取产业链最底端不足10%的微薄加工费。而一旦掌握了产品定价权,即使人民币升值的步伐再快,即使原材料涨幅再大,这都将不再是问题。

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